Smoking affects every part of the human body and leads to diseases such as COPD, cancer, and heart related problems. Addictive impact of smoking is only partly known.
The hemodynamic effects of tobacco smoking can lead to habituation. It is known however, that BP and heart rate rise during smoking.
These effects are specifically linked to nicotine, while other components of which more than 1000 have been located to be of mild toxic impact.
The rise in blood pressure can lead to a cardiac output increase and total peripheral vascular resistance.
How Smoking Impacts BP
The rise in blood pressure immediately occurs and after the rise in catecholamines circulating in the body. In hypertensive patients, blood pressure lowers the effect of beta blockers and this can be abolished by tobacco smoke.
Alpha receptor blockers maintain the anti-hypertensive effect in smokers. Smoking actually leads to an increase in blood pressure, while a slightly lower blood pressure level has been found among smokers as against non-smokers.
As blood pressure increases, a smoking quitting program is the best way out. Smoking increases the chance of development of systolic hypertension.
This is the reading of the upper blood pressure by as much as thirty percent, raising the risk of coronary heart disease 7 fold and increases the chance of stroke by 4 times.
How Does Smoking Cause a Rise in Blood Pressure
Smoking cigarettes lead to a rise in blood pressure in different ways, exposing the chemicals that damage blood vessel lining, causing the thickening and hardening of the arteries also known as arteriosclerosis.
Increasing the stickiness of blood increases the risk of embolism and thrombosis causing unwanted blood clots.
This displaced oxygen from red blood cells replacing it with harmful carbon monoxide. Less oxygenation results in a negative impact on heart muscles and artery linings.
This triggers spasms of arteries across the body, raising blood pressure and lowering blood flow to key areas such as the brain and the heart.
Growth factor beta-1 levels rise, when a smoker engages in this lethal habit namely a substance that promotes scar tissue and fibrosis in artery walls.
This produces free radicals which cause oxidative stress, increasing the chance of premature aging and linked to over 90 percent of all cancers.
Smoking also constricts the blood vessels through an impact on the sympathetic nervous system. Blood pressure can spike by 9/8mm Hg each time one has a cigarette.
If one smokes a cigarette and drinks coffee, the rise is even more, causing an increase in blood pressure of 27/17 in some people.
This means people who smoke more tend to need drugs and medicines to control the hypertension and larger doses as the effectiveness of anti-hypertensive drugs including angiotensin II blockers and beta blockers.
Nicotine: Exerting A Potent Impact
Nicotine is needed for arterial constriction. Therefore, NRT’s such as e-cigarettes can be a positive step out for those who have blood pressure.
Smoking in the long term hardens the arteries leading to a rise in BP and coronary heart disease. Quitting smoking can have a positive impact on blood pressure.
Within around 8 hours of ceasing smoking, the oxygen in the circulation starts to rise. Within 48 hours, the blood and unwanted platelet clumping lowers.
Within 3 months the flow of blood through circulation in the peripheries will majorly improve.
Nicotine rich cigarettes can exert a lethal impact on blood pressure. Hypertension is one of the most dangerous results of excessive smoking.
Cigarette smoke, whether firsthand or passive, creates a problem for those prone to high blood pressure and heart diseases as well.